靈修分享:亞略巴古的演講

亞略巴古的演說是使徒行傳一篇非常著名的講道。基督徒往往用這段經文來說明上帝的屬性,同時也會參考這段經文作為和外邦人互動的一個參考方式。最近因為團契查經查到這一段,重新思想後看到了以前沒有考慮過的面向,在這邊記錄一下。

徒17:16-34保羅在雅典等候他們的時候,看見滿城都是偶像,就心裏着急;於是在會堂裏與猶太人和虔敬的人,並每日在市上所遇見的人,辯論。還有伊壁鳩魯和斯多亞兩門的學士,與他爭論。有的說:「這胡言亂語的要說甚麼?」有的說:「他似乎是傳說外邦鬼神的。」這話是因保羅傳講耶穌與復活的道。他們就把他帶到亞略‧巴古,說:「你所講的這新道,我們也可以知道嗎?因為你有些奇怪的事傳到我們耳中,我們願意知道這些事是甚麼意思。」(雅典人和住在那裏的客人都不顧別的事,只將新聞說說聽聽。)
保羅站在亞略‧巴古當中,說:「眾位雅典人哪,我看你們凡事很敬畏鬼神。我遊行的時候,觀看你們所敬拜的,遇見一座壇,上面寫着『未識之神』。你們所不認識而敬拜的,我現在告訴你們。創造宇宙和其中萬物的神,既是天地的主,就不住人手所造的殿,也不用人手服事,好像缺少甚麼;自己倒將生命、氣息、萬物,賜給萬人。他從一本本:有古卷是血脈造出萬族的人,住在全地上,並且預先定準他們的年限和所住的疆界,要叫他們尋求神,或者可以揣摩而得,其實他離我們各人不遠;我們生活、動作、存留,都在乎他。就如你們作詩的,有人說:『我們也是他所生的。』我們既是神所生的,就不當以為神的神性像人用手藝、心思所雕刻的金、銀、石。世人蒙昧無知的時候,神並不監察,如今卻吩咐各處的人都要悔改。因為他已經定了日子,要藉着他所設立的人按公義審判天下,並且叫他從死裏復活,給萬人作可信的憑據。」
眾人聽見從死裏復活的話,就有譏誚他的;又有人說:「我們再聽你講這個吧!」於是保羅從他們當中出去了。 但有幾個人貼近他,信了主,其中有亞略‧巴古的官丟尼修,並一個婦人,名叫大馬哩,還有別人一同信從。

對基督徒來說,保羅這篇講道講的真好,不但講出了上帝的超越性(像是不住人手所造的殿、也不是金銀石的彫刻),也帶出了耶穌基督復活的大能。但最近我才注意到眾人的反應:「眾人聽見從死裏復活的話,就有譏誚他的;又有人說:「我們再聽你講這個吧!」」不曉得你看到這一段有什麼感想?可能我是玻璃心吧,如果我是保羅,我大概會非常非常的難過,看起來似乎沒有人理會這個福音、這篇講道。這篇被基督…

Linux Library Inroduction

節錄自 http://www.linux.org/docs/ldp/howto/Program-Library-HOWTO/

What is the static library?

Static libraries are simply a collection of ordinary object files; conventionally, static libraries end with the .a suffix. This collection is created using the ar (archiver) program, like:

ar rcs my_library.a file1.o file2.o

In theory, code in static ELF libraries that is linked into an executable should run slightly faster (by 1-5%) than a shared library or a dynamically loaded library, but in practice this rarely seems to be the case due to other confounding factors.

Once you've created a static library, you'll want to use it. You can use a static library by invoking it as part of the compilation and linking process when creating a program executable. If you're using gcc(1) to generate your executable, you can use the -l option to specify the library. Be careful about the order of the parameters when using gcc; the -l option is a linker option, and thus needs to be placed AFTER the name of the file to be compiled.

What is the shared library?

Shared libraries are libraries that are loaded by programs when they start. When a shared library is installed properly, all programs that start afterwards automatically use the new shared library.

Every shared library has a special name called the "soname". The soname has the prefix "lib", the name of the library, the phrase ".so", followed by a period and a version number that is incremented whenever the interface changes (as a special exception, the lowest-level C libraries don't start with "lib").

Every shared library also has a "real name", which is the filename containing the actual library code. The real name adds to the soname a period, a minor number, another period, and the release number.

In addition, there's the name that the compiler uses when requesting a library, (I'll call it the "linker name"), which is simply the soname without any version number.]

There is an example:
gcc -fPIC -g -c -Wall a.c
gcc -fPIC -g -c -Wall b.c
gcc -shared -Wl,-soname,libmystuff.so.1 -o libmystuff.so.1.0.1 a.o b.o -lc -o libmystuff.so.1.0.1 a.o b.o -lc

Here are a few points worth noting:
  • Don't strip the resulting library, and don't use the compiler option -fomit-frame-pointer unless you really have to. The resulting library will work, but these actions make debuggers mostly useless.
  • Use -fPIC or -fpic to generate code. Whether to use -fPIC or -fpic to generate code is target-dependent. The -fPIC choice always works, but may produce larger code than -fpic (mnenomic to remember this is that PIC is in a larger case, so it may produce larger amounts of code). Using -fpic option usually generates smaller and faster code, but will have platform-dependent limitations.
  • In some cases, the call to gcc to create the object file will also need to include the option "-Wl,-export-dynamic".

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